leda Bibliographic sources site

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The content of the HyperLeda database results from the compilation of several thousands of articles published in astronomical journals and of larges surveys. This bibliography is stored in the table bref04.

The bibliographic can be queried directly and is used to display details about a given source when one of the compilation is accessed.

Description of the fields


This is the code of a given reference, as given in all the data compilations. It is an integer whose value has no particular meaning.


The astronomical references have a unique descriptor consisting of 19 characters and coding the year of publication, the journal, the volume and page numbers and the first initial of the first authour's name. It was invented by NED and Simbad in the 80s and is adopted by the NASA/ADS database which is the most complete astronomical bibliographic archive.

The bibcode is given when it exists. And in the rare cases where no code was defined (data acquired privately; internal contribution by the HyperLeda team), the field is left NULL, or an internal code prefixed with the character '*' is used.


The description of a reference: list of authors, year, journal, volume and page.


This field indicates the status of the reference in the database. It is coded as follow (table bref_status_codes):

Search the bibliography

BIBCODE or part of the reference

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